Liberian-Village

A social network forum where we discuss various issues as they relate to our Liberian society, culture, arts and entertainment.
 
HomeHome  PortalPortal  CalendarCalendar  GalleryGallery  FAQFAQ  RegisterRegister  Log in  

Share | 
 

 " There is nothing Wrong with Sande Society"

View previous topic View next topic Go down 
Go to page : 1, 2, 3  Next
AuthorMessage
candygirl
Admin


Female
Number of posts : 5916
Location : Monrovia, Liberia
Say Whatever : Laughter is the best medicine
My Mood :
Points : 2260
Registration date : 2008-03-31

PostSubject: " There is nothing Wrong with Sande Society"   Fri Sep 26, 2008 12:17 am

There is an ongoing assault on Liberian culture, and the Poro and Sande Institutions, along with the traditional legal tool of Sassywood, are the most targeted. The government of President Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf has outlawed sassywood without consulting with traditional leaders, while a number of foreign-funded NGOs have sprung up across Monrovia with the mission to abolish the Poro and Sande Institutions by discrediting the traditional practices even where they admit publicly that activities of the Sande and Sande Institutions are known only to graduates of those institutions.

Even the IRIN report, which is being posted here, admits that the writers of the story know little or nothing about the Poro and Sande Institutions of Liberia, yet think they describing these traditional learning institutions as "secret society" might some-how undermine the standings of these institutions in Liberia, as if the western security agencies, fraternities, sororities, state operations, and professdional practices in any field are not restricted to "members only." But many Liberians and other Africans don't know the worth of their own culture, so they become the tools of these western entities in discrediting their own cultural practices.

And so it is not surprising that Mary Mah, who the IRIN report identifies as a "Government health worker" can problem publicly that "Over 20 percent of the initiates [graduates of the Sande Institution] die from excessive bleeding after their clitoris has been removed." Oh, well, what more can the western nation not get in Liberia? If a Liberian government employee can give out such alarming health statistics off the cuff about Sande Institution for which she cannot produce any veriafiable documentary evidence since no Liberian woman is inclined to walk into a health center in Liberia to proclaim herself a graduate of the Sande Institution, one might be hard pressed to know where Ms. Mah got her statistics from.

But thank God that Ms. Mah's guesstimate is not left unchallenged. Mrs. Catherine Watson Khasu, a trained lawyer, former Liberian Foreign Service Officer, and currently Superintendent of Grand Cape Mount County, and a graduate of the Sande Institution has called Ms. Mah and her collaborators on their bluff about the harmfulness of the Sande Institution.

The IRIN might have deliberately subordinated her views about the Sande Institution to the last two paragraphs of the article, but her views are potent enough to dispel the myths about the Sande Institution in Liberia. Superintendent Watson Khasu was quoted by IRIN as saying the following:

"People have said all sorts of things against our cultural heritage, which are not true. I am a member of the Sande [Society] and I'm proud of it. There is nothing harmful about the Sande.

"We know the [1989-2003 civil] war did a lot of damage to our country, but that does not mean we should desecrate our traditional shrines." -- Catherine Watson Khasu, Superintendent of Grand Cape Mount County.

Nat Galarea Gbessagee

9/25/08

The IRIN story:

_________________
For how can love attain true appreciation
if it has never weathered tribulation?

~MHK
Back to top Go down
View user profile
candygirl
Admin


Female
Number of posts : 5916
Location : Monrovia, Liberia
Say Whatever : Laughter is the best medicine
My Mood :
Points : 2260
Registration date : 2008-03-31

PostSubject: Re: " There is nothing Wrong with Sande Society"   Fri Sep 26, 2008 12:18 am

Liberia : FGM Continues in Rural Secrecy



UN Integrated Regional Information Networks

24 September 2008
Posted to the web 25 September 2008

Monrovia

Thousands of young girls annually prepare for their initiation into a women's secret association, Sande Society, which operates mostly in Liberia , Sierra Leone and Guinea .

As part of their initiation, young women take a vow of secrecy after weeks of training in the forest, promising not to not tell uninitiated girls or men what happens to them, to assume new names, and to have their clitorises cut off - known as female genital mutilation (FGM) - according to women in the secret society.

About half of Liberia 's some 16 ethnic groups, including the Bassa, Mende, Gola and Kissi, observe the rules of this historically- secret, centuries-old society.

One Mende member from Tubmanburg, Western Liberia , who asked not to be named, told IRIN removing a girl's clitoris helps her become a "prolific child bearer."

Another member, 42-year-old Jebbeh Sonneh, explained to IRIN, "Those who perform such [FGM] acts are typically elderly women in the community designated for the task, or traditional birth attendants."

Secrecy shrouds outreach

Sociologist Theo Kerkulah at the University of Liberia in Monrovia says even though the practice of rural forest initiations is common in Liberia , it is not openly discussed. "It is a difficult topic to teach. Most girls who joined the society are now in the classroom and never feel happy when you talk about it in the open. They feel [it is a betrayal]. Perhaps because of the myths that are associated with it."

Kerkulah says the girls are bound by secrecy vows and the time they spend together in the forest where they undergo training to enter adulthood, learning domestic skills and moral lessons.

The lecturer told IRIN many girls believe the spirit of Sande, the guardian of women, guides them into and during adulthood.

Monrovia-based medical researcher Deddeh Siah says physical pain is an additional factor binding the young girls, "In some Sandes [initiates], not only is her genitalia removed, the student is marked [cut] so that large scars remain on the skin of the initiate for life."

She estimates about 5,000 puberty-aged adolescents join the group every year, either by force or choice.

Culture can kill

Sandes are a part of Liberia 's cultural heritage, says Jomo Weah who works at a government-run culture centre in Kendeja, on the outskirts of Monrovia . "We cannot stop it. It is our culture. We can only intervene by allowing them to go about doing it when the girls are on school break."

Local civil society groups including Girls Movement for Education have tried to discourage parents from allowing their girls to join Sande Society.

Government health worker Mary Mah says FGM is killing hundreds of girls in Liberia every year. "Over 20 percent of the initiates die from excessive bleeding after their clitoris has been removed."

Mah told IRIN if excessive pain and extreme bleeding do not kill the girls, FGM can scar or disfigure her for life. "Risk of serious potentially life-threatening complications [include] ongoing bleeding, infection including HIV, urine retention, stress, shock...[and] psychological trauma."

Catherine Watson Khasu, an elected leader in Grand Cape Mount County in Western Liberia , about 140 km from Monrovia , dismisses these risks, "People have said all sorts of things against our cultural heritage, which are not true. I am a member of the Sande [Society] and I'm proud of it. There is nothing harmful about the Sande."

She told IRIN the government and human rights organisations should respect the tradition of Liberia 's indigenous groups, "We know the [1989-2003 civil] war did a lot of damage to our country, but that does not mean we should desecrate our traditional shrines."




"People have said all sorts of things against our cultural heritage, which are not true. I am a member of the Sande [Society] and I'm proud of it. There is nothing harmful about the Sande.

"We know the [1989-2003 civil] war did a lot of damage to our country, but that does not mean we should desecrate our traditional shrines." -- Catherine Watson Khasu, a lawyer, former Foreign Service Office, and currently Superintendent, Grand Cape Mount County

Source: IRIN via allAfrica.com

Nat Galarea Gbessagee

_________________
For how can love attain true appreciation
if it has never weathered tribulation?

~MHK
Back to top Go down
View user profile
krazzy



Female
Number of posts : 2353
Say Whatever : your best friend can be your worst enemy and so forth..lol
My Mood :
Points : 1735
Registration date : 2008-04-07

PostSubject: Re: " There is nothing Wrong with Sande Society"   Fri Sep 26, 2008 12:27 am

damn damn damn...talk about dangerous people! u know who i talking about candy angry1
Back to top Go down
View user profile
candygirl
Admin


Female
Number of posts : 5916
Location : Monrovia, Liberia
Say Whatever : Laughter is the best medicine
My Mood :
Points : 2260
Registration date : 2008-03-31

PostSubject: Re: " There is nothing Wrong with Sande Society"   Fri Sep 26, 2008 12:29 am

krazzy wrote:
damn damn damn...talk about dangerous people! u know who i talking about candy angry1
th_mrgreen
i do. or i think i do. hahaha
anyway.. you never some things sista No th_yes-1

_________________
For how can love attain true appreciation
if it has never weathered tribulation?

~MHK
Back to top Go down
View user profile
krazzy



Female
Number of posts : 2353
Say Whatever : your best friend can be your worst enemy and so forth..lol
My Mood :
Points : 1735
Registration date : 2008-04-07

PostSubject: Re: " There is nothing Wrong with Sande Society"   Fri Sep 26, 2008 12:45 am

well she will not be involved in whatever we plan to do on that end...culture my ass. th_bs
Back to top Go down
View user profile
candygirl
Admin


Female
Number of posts : 5916
Location : Monrovia, Liberia
Say Whatever : Laughter is the best medicine
My Mood :
Points : 2260
Registration date : 2008-03-31

PostSubject: Re: " There is nothing Wrong with Sande Society"   Fri Sep 26, 2008 12:49 am

krazzy wrote:
well she will not be involved in whatever we plan to do on that end...culture my ass. th_bs
you own pa. : smile_tongue

_________________
For how can love attain true appreciation
if it has never weathered tribulation?

~MHK
Back to top Go down
View user profile
krazzy



Female
Number of posts : 2353
Say Whatever : your best friend can be your worst enemy and so forth..lol
My Mood :
Points : 1735
Registration date : 2008-04-07

PostSubject: Re: " There is nothing Wrong with Sande Society"   Fri Sep 26, 2008 12:52 am

candy...to respect our culture has many sides...which ones violate our rights and which ones are productive? what is the benefit of FGM? because she was unfortunate to get #$% without her consent, she believes every girl shd endure that pain and suffering? th_bs th_no
Back to top Go down
View user profile
candygirl
Admin


Female
Number of posts : 5916
Location : Monrovia, Liberia
Say Whatever : Laughter is the best medicine
My Mood :
Points : 2260
Registration date : 2008-03-31

PostSubject: Re: " There is nothing Wrong with Sande Society"   Fri Sep 26, 2008 12:55 am

krazzy wrote:
candy... because she was unfortunate to get #$% without her consent, she believes every girl shd endure that pain and suffering? th_bs th_no
thats the mentality of many...

_________________
For how can love attain true appreciation
if it has never weathered tribulation?

~MHK
Back to top Go down
View user profile
krazzy



Female
Number of posts : 2353
Say Whatever : your best friend can be your worst enemy and so forth..lol
My Mood :
Points : 1735
Registration date : 2008-04-07

PostSubject: Re: " There is nothing Wrong with Sande Society"   Fri Sep 26, 2008 1:00 am

let me come put money in my budget to kick asses th_yes
Back to top Go down
View user profile
candygirl
Admin


Female
Number of posts : 5916
Location : Monrovia, Liberia
Say Whatever : Laughter is the best medicine
My Mood :
Points : 2260
Registration date : 2008-03-31

PostSubject: Re: " There is nothing Wrong with Sande Society"   Fri Sep 26, 2008 1:05 am

krazzy wrote:
let me come put money in my budget to kick asses th_yes
th_boogie

nopw thats what i am talking about smile_approve

_________________
For how can love attain true appreciation
if it has never weathered tribulation?

~MHK
Back to top Go down
View user profile
bellah



Male
Number of posts : 1605
Say Whatever : \
Points : 4154
Registration date : 2008-04-03

PostSubject: Re: " There is nothing Wrong with Sande Society"   Fri Sep 26, 2008 2:08 am

There are serious problem with our informal educational system. I think the bad topple the good and we need to address that in the context of relativity. That is why i am proposing the holding of an All Liberian Conference in Monrovia. This conference should address all the issues facing us as a nation as we move forward...
Back to top Go down
View user profile
krazzy



Female
Number of posts : 2353
Say Whatever : your best friend can be your worst enemy and so forth..lol
My Mood :
Points : 1735
Registration date : 2008-04-07

PostSubject: Re: " There is nothing Wrong with Sande Society"   Fri Sep 26, 2008 2:23 am

bellah, when your having this conference? u always talking about it. : smile_tongue i hope allz well!
Back to top Go down
View user profile
bellah



Male
Number of posts : 1605
Say Whatever : \
Points : 4154
Registration date : 2008-04-03

PostSubject: Re: " There is nothing Wrong with Sande Society"   Fri Sep 26, 2008 2:49 am

krazzy wrote:
bellah, when your having this conference? u always talking about it. : smile_tongue i hope allz well!

We are trying to bring the Government on board so that the resolution emanating from the conference will have teeth. The fellows in the diaspora have already had one along with their European Counterpart. The final one will be in Monrovia. Ma Ellen supported the idea before the Election but is acting slow to see it coming true. Hope she can support it again and then we will all be in Monrovia to brain storm.
Back to top Go down
View user profile
krazzy



Female
Number of posts : 2353
Say Whatever : your best friend can be your worst enemy and so forth..lol
My Mood :
Points : 1735
Registration date : 2008-04-07

PostSubject: Re: " There is nothing Wrong with Sande Society"   Fri Sep 26, 2008 2:52 am

why can't civil society meet and think without government? serious. dont we matter or have 'teeth' in the running of this country?
Back to top Go down
View user profile
bellah



Male
Number of posts : 1605
Say Whatever : \
Points : 4154
Registration date : 2008-04-03

PostSubject: Re: " There is nothing Wrong with Sande Society"   Fri Sep 26, 2008 3:07 am

Civil society and all the stake holders need to be there but GOL need to create an enabling environment for said meeting. GOL will implement the recommendation so she needs to lend her support so that we all can be on one accord for the good of the nation.
Back to top Go down
View user profile
krazzy



Female
Number of posts : 2353
Say Whatever : your best friend can be your worst enemy and so forth..lol
My Mood :
Points : 1735
Registration date : 2008-04-07

PostSubject: Re: " There is nothing Wrong with Sande Society"   Fri Sep 26, 2008 3:14 am

the environment na enbaling na...jes come-palava huts here for meeting. talk, make recommendations, give to ma ellen and crew-then monitor the use or lack of use; compare to their own approaches-like shadowing the government. if we wait for them to do the work of civil society, we will wait for a long time bellah. my ellen dem da state na-they've left civil society. even conmany is ambassador now. things have changed. we need to engage and can do so by taking the first step on our own. my two cents bah!
Back to top Go down
View user profile
bellah



Male
Number of posts : 1605
Say Whatever : \
Points : 4154
Registration date : 2008-04-03

PostSubject: Re: " There is nothing Wrong with Sande Society"   Fri Sep 26, 2008 3:55 am

The cutting of the clitoris is harmful and should be abolished. Nat presented a beautiful article as reposted by my good friend CG. I think what Nat failed to realize is that FGM has prohibited a lot of African women from having kids during reproduction and enyoying social life with their partners. However i shall address my good friend Nat on the subject on our widely read listserve my dear friends............Let keep the torch burning.
Back to top Go down
View user profile
jclifden



Male
Number of posts : 527
Points : 31
Registration date : 2008-04-02

PostSubject: Re: " There is nothing Wrong with Sande Society"   Fri Sep 26, 2008 3:58 am

candygirl wrote:
There is an ongoing assault on Liberian culture, and the Poro and Sande Institutions, along with the traditional legal tool of Sassywood, are the most targeted. The government of President Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf has outlawed sassywood without consulting with traditional leaders, while a number of foreign-funded NGOs have sprung up across Monrovia with the mission to abolish the Poro and Sande Institutions by discrediting the traditional practices even where they admit publicly that activities of the Sande and Sande Institutions are known only to graduates of those institutions.

Even the IRIN report, which is being posted here, admits that the writers of the story know little or nothing about the Poro and Sande Institutions of Liberia, yet think they describing these traditional learning institutions as "secret society" might some-how undermine the standings of these institutions in Liberia, as if the western security agencies, fraternities, sororities, state operations, and professdional practices in any field are not restricted to "members only." But many Liberians and other Africans don't know the worth of their own culture, so they become the tools of these western entities in discrediting their own cultural practices.

And so it is not surprising that Mary Mah, who the IRIN report identifies as a "Government health worker" can problem publicly that "Over 20 percent of the initiates [graduates of the Sande Institution] die from excessive bleeding after their clitoris has been removed." Oh, well, what more can the western nation not get in Liberia? If a Liberian government employee can give out such alarming health statistics off the cuff about Sande Institution for which she cannot produce any veriafiable documentary evidence since no Liberian woman is inclined to walk into a health center in Liberia to proclaim herself a graduate of the Sande Institution, one might be hard pressed to know where Ms. Mah got her statistics from.

But thank God that Ms. Mah's guesstimate is not left unchallenged. Mrs. Catherine Watson Khasu, a trained lawyer, former Liberian Foreign Service Officer, and currently Superintendent of Grand Cape Mount County, and a graduate of the Sande Institution has called Ms. Mah and her collaborators on their bluff about the harmfulness of the Sande Institution.

The IRIN might have deliberately subordinated her views about the Sande Institution to the last two paragraphs of the article, but her views are potent enough to dispel the myths about the Sande Institution in Liberia. Superintendent Watson Khasu was quoted by IRIN as saying the following:

"People have said all sorts of things against our cultural heritage, which are not true. I am a member of the Sande [Society] and I'm proud of it. There is nothing harmful about the Sande.

"We know the [1989-2003 civil] war did a lot of damage to our country, but that does not mean we should desecrate our traditional shrines." -- Catherine Watson Khasu, Superintendent of Grand Cape Mount County.

Nat Galarea Gbessagee

9/25/08

The IRIN story:

I think those member only clubs this writer speak off.....If Im not mistaken u have to be at least in college to Join. That qualify u as being able to make ur own decision whether to join or not.

I wonder do these children inside these societies have that same choice?

Even in the members only clubs in America, they are not above the Law. They are subject to govt intrusion at anytime.

These societies must open up to the govt to ensure they are not causing irreparable damages to these children.
Back to top Go down
View user profile
krazzy



Female
Number of posts : 2353
Say Whatever : your best friend can be your worst enemy and so forth..lol
My Mood :
Points : 1735
Registration date : 2008-04-07

PostSubject: Re: " There is nothing Wrong with Sande Society"   Fri Sep 26, 2008 5:02 am

jclif...they don't and the government will only intervene to the point of saying, yea, u can cut it off but don't do it during the formal school period. so when it is vacation, people are free to cut whatever they feel like. ehn u see the superintendent getting vex because people spoiling 'our culture'.
Back to top Go down
View user profile
sunshine



Female
Number of posts : 83
My Mood :
Points : 0
Registration date : 2008-08-11

PostSubject: Re: " There is nothing Wrong with Sande Society"   Fri Sep 26, 2008 9:30 am

krazzy wrote:
why can't civil society meet and think without government? serious. dont we matter or have 'teeth' in the running of this country?


Very good point Krazzy. I could not agree more. How many more DISCUSSIONS are we going to have for goodness sake!!!?? Forget the discussions! If you want to see change then BE the change.... and you do not need to have the government on board to do that.
Back to top Go down
View user profile
Unique1



Female
Number of posts : 129
My Mood :
Points : 49
Registration date : 2008-04-21

PostSubject: Re: " There is nothing Wrong with Sande Society"   Sat Sep 27, 2008 1:38 am

What's the big deal about people cutting fish thongs off that others should go against it and try to make it look so heinous? That is our cultural heritage and it is unfair for our own people to try to kill and bury something that our fore fathers left with us. If the white man says the blades and things used to do the mutilation are not sterilized...and that could cause prolong bleeding, and lead to so many diseases, then the chorus should be "sterilzed the blades". By the way, all operations not done well especially with unsterilzed materials can lead to lots of complications, even death. The solution is not to stop these operations, but improve them if the need be.

And FYI, the FGM has alot of positive sides and benifits too. Let it be continue.
Back to top Go down
View user profile
candygirl
Admin


Female
Number of posts : 5916
Location : Monrovia, Liberia
Say Whatever : Laughter is the best medicine
My Mood :
Points : 2260
Registration date : 2008-03-31

PostSubject: Re: " There is nothing Wrong with Sande Society"   Sat Sep 27, 2008 1:39 am

Unique1 wrote:
What's the big deal about people cutting fish thongs off that others should go against it and try to make it look so heinous? That is our cultural heritage and it is unfair for our own people to try to kill and bury something that our fore fathers left with us. If the white man says the blades and things used to do the mutilation are not sterilized...and that could cause prolong bleeding, and lead to so many diseases, then the chorus should be "sterilzed the blades". By the way, all operations not done well especially with unsterilzed materials can lead to lots of complications, even death. The solution is not to stop these operations, but improve them if the need be.

And FYI, the FGM has alot of positive sides and benifits too. Let it be continue.

affraid affraid affraid No No No

_________________
For how can love attain true appreciation
if it has never weathered tribulation?

~MHK
Back to top Go down
View user profile
Unique1



Female
Number of posts : 129
My Mood :
Points : 49
Registration date : 2008-04-21

PostSubject: Re: " There is nothing Wrong with Sande Society"   Sat Sep 27, 2008 1:45 am

th_yes th_yes-1 th_noevil
Back to top Go down
View user profile
krazzy



Female
Number of posts : 2353
Say Whatever : your best friend can be your worst enemy and so forth..lol
My Mood :
Points : 1735
Registration date : 2008-04-07

PostSubject: Re: " There is nothing Wrong with Sande Society"   Sat Sep 27, 2008 1:50 am

there is something called bodily integrity-the communities should not have rights over girls' bodies. what is the essence of FGM and how has it helped any woman or girl? there are also medical implications, especially during childbirth. last, culture is dynamic. because someone killed a goat to appease family whose daughter had been raped for centuries does not make it right. some things have to stop if they do not benefit the women and girls who go thru the pain and suffering. Pain, suffering, fistula and violation of women and girls' rights are not western-they relate to human beings globally, ma.
Back to top Go down
View user profile
candygirl
Admin


Female
Number of posts : 5916
Location : Monrovia, Liberia
Say Whatever : Laughter is the best medicine
My Mood :
Points : 2260
Registration date : 2008-03-31

PostSubject: Re: " There is nothing Wrong with Sande Society"   Sat Sep 27, 2008 1:56 am

FEMALE GENITAL MUTILATION IN AFRICA :
Information by Country

Country
Estimate % of women and girls who undergo F GM
Type of F GM practised


Benin
50%
Excision
F GM is mainly practised in the north of the Country. There is no law specifically prohibiting F GM . The Inter-African Committee on Traditional Practices Affecting the Health of Women and Children (IAC) has been campaigning against F GM since 1982, collaborating with the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health. Educational materials are distributed in government-run clinics.

Burkina Faso
70%
Excision
All but a few of the country's 50 ethnic groups practice F GM . Recent legislation outlaws F GM and the government campaigns widely against the practice. The National Committee for the Fight against Excision (CNLPE), affiliated to the IAC, was set up in 1990 and carries out extensive educational work.

Cameroon
20%
Clitoridectomy and excision
F GM is practised in some areas of the far north and south-west. There is no law specifically prohibiting F GM . The IAC's Cameroon chapter was created in 1992. The government supports their activities. IAC Cameroon is invited to all meetings organized by the Ministry of Social Welfare and Women's Affairs, and the Ministry ofPublic Health.

Central African Republic
50%
Clitoridectomy and excision
F GM is prevalent in approximately 10 of the country's 48 ethnic groups. There has been a law against F GM since 1966 and the government has taken a number of measures against the practice.

Chad
60%
Excision and infibulation
F GM is practised in all areas of the country, infibulation being performed in the eastern part bordering Sudan . There is no law specifically prohibiting F GM . The IAC is active in outreach programmes. The government plays a minimal role in trying to eradicate the practice.

Côte d'Ivoire
60%
Excision
F GM is deeply rooted in animist initiation rites. It is also prevalent among Muslim women. It is practised particularly among the rural populations in the north, north-east and west. A new law prohibiting F GM is being drafted. Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) campaigning against F GM include the International Movement of Democratic Women (MIFED), the IAC, the Ivorian Association for the Defence of Women's Human Rights (AID-F), and the Ivorian Association for Safe Motherhood (AMS). They receive some government support.

Democratic Republic of Congo
5%
Excision
F GM is practised on girls living in the northern equatorial part of the country. No law specifically prohibits F GM .

Djibouti
90-98%
Excision and infibulation
An estimated 95% of women from all ethnic groups are infibulated. A Penal Code provision outlawing F GM has been in force since 1994. Among the several organizations working on the issue are the Association for the Equilibrium and Promotion of the Family (ADEPF) and the Union Nationale des Femmes de Djibouti (UNFD), National Union of Women of Djibouti, which organize workshops to raise awareness about the health risks of F GM . Both groups receive occasional media coverage. The Ministry of Health allows clinics and health training centres to distribute information about F GM and other harmful traditional practices.

Egypt
97%
Clitoridectomy, excision, and infibulation
F GM is practised by both Muslims and Coptic Christians, infibulation being particularly prevalent in the southern part of the country. A presidential decree in 1958 prohibited F GM , making it punishable by a fine and imprisonment. In July 1996, Health Minister, Ismail Sallam, banned all licensed health professionals from performing F GM . In June 1997 an Egyptian court overturned this ban. In his decision, Judge Abdul Aziz Hammade stated that F GM was a form of surgery which doctors have the legal ''right'' to perform, without interference from ministerial bodies. The health minister and the head of Egypt 's medical syndicate have appealed against the court's decision, and the Sheikh of al-Azhar, the highest religious authority in the country, has declared his support for the ban. The health minister has announced that his July 1996 ban will remain in place until the appeal process is completed. Various NGOs are active in the campaign against F GM , including the Egyptian Organization for Human Rights.

Eritrea
90%
Clitoridectomy, excision and infibulation
F GM is carried out by almost all ethnic groups. No law specifically prohibits F GM . Prior to winning independence from Ethiopia in 1991, the Eritrean People's Liberation Front (EPLF) undertook abolition campaigns in areas under its control with the stated aim of di sc ontinuing the practice. Based on the EPLF experience, F GM is included in the Eritrean government's health and general education programmes. The National Union of Eritrean Youth and Students and the official women's organization have embarked on a campaign to di sc ourage F GM .

_________________
For how can love attain true appreciation
if it has never weathered tribulation?

~MHK
Back to top Go down
View user profile
Sponsored content




PostSubject: Re: " There is nothing Wrong with Sande Society"   Today at 5:45 am

Back to top Go down
 
" There is nothing Wrong with Sande Society"
View previous topic View next topic Back to top 
Page 1 of 3Go to page : 1, 2, 3  Next
 Similar topics
-
» The Scarf Appreciation Society
» Justice Society of America: World's Greatest Heroes?
» Something is wrong with my Wii
» World Gone Wrong
» "Something is wrong, something is terribly wrong in the motorcade route...."

Permissions in this forum:You cannot reply to topics in this forum
Liberian-Village :: Main Room: The Village-
Jump to: